Pemikiran Politik Machiavelli Mengenai Kekuasaan Politik dan Ekspansi Militer

Oleh YB. Heru Wahyu Jatmiko, M.Si.

ABSTRAK

Penelitian atas pemikiran Machiavelli ini memakai pendekatan kualitatif dalam bentuk penafsiran atas pemikirannya sebagaimana tertuang dalam buku The Prince, The Discourse dan The Art of War. Permasalahan penelitian mencakup pelaksanaan dan persiapan ekspansi militer, arti penting ekspansi militer bagi kekuasaan politik dan bentuk kekuasaan politik bagi kebesaran Florence. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memahami pemikiran politik Machiavelli mengenai kekuasaan politik dan ekspansi militer sebab selama ini pemikiran Machiavelli hanya dipahami berisi satu tema kekuasaan politik saja.
Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa persiapan ekspansi militer dilakukan dengan menanamkan virtù pada seluruh warga negaranya. Virtù dipahami sebagai komitmen lahir batin terhadap kebesaran negara. Kebesaran negara adalah kebesaran nama, kekuasaan dan kekayaan. Penanaman virtù itu dilakukan melalui dua tahap yaitu ketika masyarakat korup, virtù ditanamkan dengan kekerasan dan persuasi sehingga tertanam virtù rakyat. Setelah virtù rakyat tertanam, virtù itu ditingkatkan menjadi virtù sejati melalui pasukan sendiri atau tentara rakyat (militia). Melalui prosedur perekrutan yang menyeluruh, semua warga negara tanpa kecuali akan terkena program militer rakyat ini. Bila virtù sejati itu telah tertanam, maka negara akan mencapai kejayaan selamanya melalui ekspansi militer dan pemeliharaan wilayah jajahan.

Bagi Machiavelli, ekspansi tidak selalu harus ekspansi militer. Ekspansi non militer dilakukan dengan mencontoh republik Romawi yaitu aliansi yang dikepalai oleh Republik Romawi terhadap negara-negara tetangganya. Aliansi ini dilakukan dengan tipuan. Tindakan militer atau ekspansi militer merupakan jalan terakhir ketika negara taklukan memberontak atau negara lain menyerang negara protektoratnya.
Kekuasaan politik merupakan seni mempengaruhi manusia-manusia agar tercapai kebesaran negara. Kekuasaan bertugas untuk menanamkan virtù kepada warga negaranya agar tercapai kebesaran negara. Kebesaran negara bisa diperoleh melalui ekspansi militer. Ekspansi militer memberikan bentuk kelihatan atas tujuan kekuasaan politik sekaligus memberikan tolok ukur keberhasilan kekuasaan politik. Tanpa ekspansi militer, negara akan hancur.

Agar Florence menjadi besar, Machiavelli menasehatkan agar Paus Leo X segera mengambil alih kekuasaan di Florence. Karena masyarakatnya sudah terlanjur korup, Leo X diminta berkuasa sebagai seorang Raja atau Diktator dengan menggunakan kekerasan dan tipuan. Setelah itu, Leo X membentuk republik, membentuk pasukan sendiri dan melakukan ekspansi dengan tipuan. Machiavelli mengatakan Leo akan berhasil karena ia punya virtù dan fortune.

Implikasi teoritis dari penelitian ini adalah bahwa teori St. Sularto, Skinner dan Hörnqvist perlu menambahkan teori pemusatan kekuasaan Eropa abad pertengahan dari Martin van Creveld dan Bruce D. Porter, tradisi pemikiran filosofis masa itu, dan penggabungan tema buku The Prince, The Discourse dan The Art of War agar bisa dijelaskan secara tepat kata virtù dan fortune yang menjadi kata-kata kunci dalam pemikiran Machiavelli.

ABSTRACT

The research of Machiavelli’s thought uses qualitative method in a form of interpreting his thought written in The Prince, The Discourse and The Art of War. The problems of the research consist of preparation and execution of military expansion, the importance of military expansion for political power and form of political power for the greatness of Florence. The research aims to comprehend military expansion and political power according to Machiavelli’s political thought, which is always assumed to have only one theme, i.e. political power theme.

The result of the research shows that military expansion was prepared by implanting virtù on all of citizens. Virtù was thought as commitment to the state greatness inwardly and outwardly. The greatness of the state consisted of the greatness of good name, the greatness of power and the greatness of wealth. Virtù was implanted through two ways, i.e., when the people were still corrupt, virtù was instilled through violent and persuasion means, through which the people would have people virtù. Having implanted, virtù was advanced to become true virtù through own states army or people army (militia). By total recruitment procedure, which recruited all of the people, all of the citizens, without exception, would incur the militia (people army) programme. When the true virtù had already implanted, the state would gain the greatness ceaselessly through military expansion and maintaining her dominions.
According to Machiavelli, expansion wasn’t only military expansion. Non-military expansion was conducted by exemplifying of Rome republic, i.e., alliance headed by Rome republic to neighbour states. This alliance was made by deception. Military action or military expansion was presented as a last resort when dominion rebelled or her protectorate was attacked by other country.

Political power was thought as art of influencing people which aimed to the greatness. The power implanted virtù on her citizens for the sake of the greatness. The greatness would be obtained through military expansion. Thus, military expansion gave both real form of power end and power efficacy measure. Without military expansion, the state would be ruined.

For the sake of the Florence greatness, Machiavelli advised that Pope Leo X as soon as possible took over the power of Florence. Because of the corrupt people, he demanded Leo X to seize the power as a prince or a Dictator by which violent and deceitful means would be carried out. After that, Leo X created a republic, initiated own state army and conducted expansion by deceitful way. Machiavelli said that Leo X would succeed to do this because he had virtù and fortune.

Theoritical implication from this research is that St. Sularto, Quentin Skinner and Mikael Hörnqvist need to enhance their theories with the Martin van Creveld and Bruce D. Porter theories of political power centralization in Europe at middle ages, the philosophy traditions in the Machiavelli’s period, combining The Prince, The Discourse and The Art of War themes that the words virtù and fortune which are keywords in Machiavelli’s thought are able to be explained correctly.

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